MLA Style FAQs
(Click a question below to see the answer)
- What are the general differences between an APA and an MLA style referencing?
The main differences are as follows:
- Date: In MLA, the date follows the publisher in the citation, and is not in parentheses. In APA, the date follows the author and is in parentheses.
- Author's Name: In MLA, the author's full name (first and last) is spelled out. In APA, the author's last name is spelled out and the first name is reduced to initials.
- Capitalization: In MLA, all major words in the title are capitalized, and the title is underlined. In APA, only the first word of the title, the first word of a subtitle, and any proper nouns (like names) are capitalized. Everything else is lowercase. Also, the title is written in italics.
- Source Page: In MLA, the source page is called a "Works Cited" and in APA it is called the "References".
- In the in text citations, MLA uses the last name of the author and the page number; APA uses the last name of the author and the date.
- Also with the in text citations, MLA does not uses commas to separate the material, or p. pp. before the page numbers. APA does use commas and, if a page is mentioned, uses p. and pp.
Example: MLA (Burns 101)
Example: APA (Burns, 1999, p. 4)
Here are two comparison examples:
Klaphake, Elizabeth. My Life as an English Professor. Bellevue,
Nebraska: Bellevue University Press. 1999.
Klaphake, E. (1999). My life as an English professor. Bellevue,
Nebraska: Bellevue University Press.
- What are some general guidelines for the formatting of my MLA paper?
- MLA does not require a title page be made. But to be on the safe side, make sure you ask your professor which they would prefer
- On the first page of your paper you will want to write your name, your instructors name, the course title, and the date all on separate lines at the left hand side of the paper. Then your title should be centered. All of this is how MLA asks for it to be done, but remember to ask your professor for any specifics they would like to see on your paper.
- Leave all margins in the paper at 1 inch on all sides. Your paper should also be double spaced.
- For pagination of your paper, the MLA asks that it is done with your last name, then the page number. (Example: Morton 2) But remember, your professor might like it done a different way.
- MLA neither encourages nor discourages the use of headings in the paper. You may do it however you see fit, but remember to check with your professor on how they should be typed (i.e. boldface, centered, underlined, etc.)
- MLA states that if you have any visual aids, such as tables or figures, you are to label each one with an Arabic numeral and provide a clear caption that identifies the subject (Table 1, Picture 2). This label appears above the item itself. Underneath the item, you would write the source of the info - it is a figures version of an in text citation. You start the information with the word "Source:"
- MLA states that any additional sources you include, such as graphs, tables, etc, be placed in the document as close to the actual sentence that it refers to, unless the professor asks for you to place such items in an appendix at the end of your paper.
- If you are citing more than one book by the same author, alphabetize them by title (not date like in APA) and then put three hyphens (---) in place of the author's name for every entry after that which is by the same author.
- Underline the titles of books, journals, magazines, newspapers, and films.
- Use quote marks for the titles of articles in journals, magazines, and newspapers.
- Page numbers are required for everything from direct quote to paraphrasing to summarizing.
- The whole paper, including the Works Cited, is double spaced.
- List only those sources directly cited within the text of your paper on your Works Cited.
- In referencing periodicals, what's the difference between using "p." and "pp." for the page numbers?
If a periodical includes a volume number, write the volume number, then a period, then the issue number, and then give the page range without "pp."
Example: 34.1, 40-42.
If the periodical does not use volume numbers, include "pp." before the page numbers, so the reader will understand that the numbers refer to pagination.
Example: title, pp 40-42.
Use "p." if the source is a page or less.
Example: p. 1.
- What is a hanging indent?
A hanging indent is how the sources in a works cited list are typed. The first line of the hanging indent is written flush with the left margin, and any additional lines are indented a few spaces (usually a tab or about five spaces) to the right of the left margin. See example below:
Nicol, Andy, & Perry Pexman. Presenting Your Findings: A Practical Guide for Creating Tables.
Washington, DC: American Psychological
To create a hanging indent, go to "Format" menu, and click on "Paragraph". Choose "Indents and Spacing" tab. In the Special list under "Indentation", select "Hanging". In the "By" box, set the amount of space for the hanging indent, which is usually a tab - so 0.5 spaces.
- Why does MLA recommend putting angle brackets <> around URLs in the works cited list?
When special symbols are placed at the beginning and the end of URL addresses, the reader is certain to know where the starting and ending point of the address are. These special symbols prevent any unnecessary confusion when URL addresses contain other common grammatical symbols like commas, hyphens, and periods.
- My word processor omits the angle brackets and turns my URLs into hyperlinks in my works cited list. Is this okay?
Hyperlinks are useful for documents when they are read on a computer screen, but if printed out on paper, the hyperlink looses its purpose. An easy way to get rid of hyperlinks as you type it to go up to "Tools", and down to "Auto Correct Options". Then click on the tab that says "AutoFormat As You Type" and uncheck the box that says "Internet and networks paths with hyperlinks". Another option is the shortcut way. You right click on each hyperlink individually and chose, from the menu that pops up, "Hyperlink". Click on "Edit Hyperlink" and then on "Remove Hyperlink" to remove it. An even simpler way to remove hyperlinks, if your computer has none of the options mentioned above, is to highlight you whole Works Cited page and change the font color to black.
- Sometimes I have seen MLA done in underline and sometimes done in italics. I thought italics were for APA? Why is it like this?
Most word processing programs and computers permit the reproduction of italic type. In material that will be graded or edited for publication, the type style of every letter and punctuation mark must be easily recognizable. Italic type is sometimes not distinctive enough for this purpose. In printed materials submitted for grading or editing, words that would normally be italicized in publication are usually underlined to avoid ambiguity. MLA, for these reasons, chooses to have the titles of works be done in underline rather than italics, by the general rule. But sometimes you can find MLA done in italics instead. To be on the safe side, go by underlining, since that is what the MLA book asks.
Frequently Asked Questions About In Text Citations
- What is one of the most important things to remember about in text citation references?
Whether it be APA or MLA, the in text citation will always come after a quote mark and before the period ending the sentence. This is because the citation goes with the information presented inside the area being cited, and therefore, is still part of the sentence itself.
Correct: and so she says" (Burns 13).
Only one period to end the sentence.
Incorrect: and so it was over. (Burns 13).
You do not want two periods, because your citation will have turned itself into a fragment sentence.
- What kinds of information do I need to document?
The following is a common list of sources that you need to document in your research papers:
- Direct quotations
- Maps, charts, or diagrams copied
- Paraphrased or summarized ideas and opinions
- Factual material which is not common knowledge
- Anything that did not come from your own head and thought
- What does an in text citation accomplish?
It accomplished three things:
- Announces to your reader that you are presenting information that is from a source other than yourself. In doing this, you avoid plagiarism,
- Should direct your readers attention to the full documentation which is listed in your Works Cited page, and
- They provide a reference to the specific location (book, magazine, etc.) of the material that you are citing.
- How to I write out an in text citation for MLA?
There are generally two ways that it can be done. The first is to include the author's name in the paragraph itself, before the actual quoted material starts and then just have the page number in parentheses; or you can include both the author's name and page number in parentheses after the material has been presented.
Graham Storey observes, "What Dickens shared with Carlyle was a hatred of Bentham's doctrine of utility and its social and economic consequences" (12).
Dickens shared Carlyle's "hatred" of Benthamite Utilitarianism (Storey 12).
Note: Just remember, the parenthetical information should complement, not repeat, information given in your text (e.g. if you mention the author's name in the text, you do not need to include it again in the citation).
Also, if you do not have an author name, you would use the first few words of the title and the page number instead.
- What do I do if I have a quotation that is longer than four lines?
You use the block quotation style.
- Introduce your quotation with a colon and then hit "enter/return" to go to the next line in your paper.
- Indent the quotation 1 inch from the left margin.
- Double space the quotation, just like the rest of the paper.
- Do not use quotation marks.
- Place the parenthetical citation after the period of the last sentence that closes the block quotation.
I am using the above directions as an example:
You use the block quotation style. (1) Introduce your quotation
with a colon and then hit "enter/return" to go to the next line in
your paper. (2) Indent the quotation 1 inch from the left margin. (3)
Double space the quotation, just like the rest of the paper. (4) Do
not use quotation marks. (5) Place the parenthetical citation after
the period of the last sentence that closes the block quotation. (Burns 4)
That is how to type a quote that is longer than four lines.
How do I in text cite in MLA:
- an author's name in the text itself?
Magny develops this argument (67-69).
- an author's name in the reference?
This argument has been developed elsewhere (Magny 67-69).
- a source with two authors?
(Magny and Dabundo 56).
- a source with three to five authors?
(Sloan, Stout, and Liang 56-58). or (Sloan, et al 56-58).
- a corporate author?
(National Institute of Mental Heath [NIMH] 68-70).
Then for further in text citations of this source, you just use the abbreviation.
- a source without an author?
Use the first few important words of the title. ("Study Finds" 56-57).
- books by the same author, but different titles?
Unlike APA where you would sort them by year (Johnson, 1991a) (Johnson, 1991b) (Johnson, 1991c), MLA states that, since you don't use dates, you would add the first part of the title to the source.
(Johnson, "Study" 67-69). and (Johnson, Biology 45-50).
Note: You use underline if it is a book being quoted, and you use quote marks if it is an article being quoted).
- different authors who have the same last name?
In this case, it is okay to use initials to set them apart. (H. Jones 48). or (R. Jones 36).
- two works cited at the same time?
Use a comma to separate the names: (Magny 69, Dabundo 142).
- a secondary source?
You want to use both the citation information of the secondary source and the primary source that you retrieved it from.
Seidenberg and McClelland's study (qtd. in Coltheart,
Curtis, Atkins, & Haller 210) . . .
You would also want to make sure that it was the primary source (Coltheart, etc.) that you cite in your works cited list.
- sacred book sources (Bible, etc.)?
Identify the quotations or references by book, chapter, and verse (e.g. Phil. 4:16) (Gen. 2:23) Use abbreviations for books with more than five letters.
- a website?
You would just provide the address to the website in the text. No additional information is placed in the reference list since you are not using any information from the website in your paper itself.
Example: . . . (http://www.bellevue.edu) . . .
- a personal interview?
As Jeff Smith told me "cold weather is coming" (Personal interview. 15 September 1987).
"Cold weather is coming" (Smith, Jeff. Personal interview. 15 September 1987).
Frequently Asked Questions For Citing Books
- What are some basic guidelines for citing books?
- Names are listed last name, first name (spelled out), and then middle initial, if an author is given. Burns, James
- If there is more than one author, write the first authors name inverted, and all those that follow first/last; all names are separated with a comma and the word 'and' before the last author. Burns, James, Keith Campbell, and John Bolt
- Capitalize all the words in the titles, except for minor words. The Art of the Peloponnesian War.
- Underline all titles of books, journals, magazines, films and newspapers. The Art of the Peloponnesian War.
- Put in quote marks the titles of articles, chapters, songs, poems, short stories, etc. "Mary Had a Little Lamb"
Dates come after the place of publication and are not in parenthesis.
APA: Burns, J. (1999).
MLA: New York, NY: Putnam, 1999.
The date is the last thing in the entry itself.
- Don't forget to use a hanging indent.
- All citations are double spaced entries.
Note: To save room in this document, all citations have been single spaced - but don't forget to double space your work!!!
How do I cite in MLA:
- a book with a single author?
Author's last name, author's full first name. Title. Place of Publication:
Tan, Amy. The Bonesetter's Daughter. New York: Putnam, 2001.
- a book with multiple authors?
Last name, first name, first name last name, first name last name, and first
name last name. Title. Place of Publication, Publisher, date
- a corporate author?
The exact same way as a single author books, just put the organizations name in place of the normal author's name.
Organization's name [Abbreviation if one]. Title. Place of Publication:
- a source that doesn't have an author?
Since we are discussing books here, you would just replace the title in the area where the author's name usually would go.
Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, date.
- two or more works by the same author?
Use the author's name for only the first entry. For all other entries, type three hyphens followed by a period. Make sure the titles are sorted in alphabetical order.
Atwood, Margaret. Alias Grace: A Novel. New York: Doubleday, 1996.
---. The Robber Bride. New York: Doubleday, 1993.
- a book with an editor?
The same way you would cite a normal book entry. You would just place "ed." (editor) or "eds." (editors) following a comma after the author's name.
Powell, Kevin, ed. Step into a World: A Global Anthology of the New Black Literature.
New York: Wiley, 2000.
- a book that has an author and an editor?
Begin with the author and title, followed by the author name, and the rest of the normal citation information.
Plath, Sylvia. The Unabridged Journals of Sylvia Plath. Ed. Karen V.
Kukil. New York: Anchor-Doubleday, 2000.
- book that has a government agency as its author?
Give the name of the government first, then the name of the agency.
Hawaii. Dept. of Business and Economic Development. The State of
Hawaii Data Book: A Statistical Abstract. Honolulu: Dept. of
Business and Economic Development, 1998.
- a book that is not a first edition?
Boyce, David George. The Irish Question and British Politics 1868-1996.
- a republished book?
After the title of the book, cite the original publication date, followed by the current publication information. If the republished book contains new material, such as an introduction or afterward, include information about the new material after the original date.
Dieta, Lew, and Kristi Ruhomaa. Night Train at Wiscasset Station. 1977.
Foreward Andrew Wyeth. Camden: Down East, 1998.
- a book that is part of a publisher's imprint?
If the book was published by an imprint (division) of a publishing company, link the name of the imprint and the name of the publisher with a hyphen (-) putting the imprint name first.
Truan, Barry. Acoustic Communication. Westport: Ablex-Greenwood,
- an encyclopedia or dictionary entry?
When the encyclopedia or dictionary are well known, simply list the author of the entry (if there is one), the title of the entry, the title of the reference work, the edition number (if any), and the date of the edition.
Posner, Rebecca. "Romance Languages." The New Encyclopedia
Britannica: Macropaedia. 15th ed. 1987.
"Sonata." The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 4th
- a sacred text (Bible, Koran, etc)?
Give the title of the sacred text (taken from the title page), underline it, the editor's name (if any), and publication information.
Holy Bible: New Living Translation. Wheaton: Tyndale, 1996.
Holy Bible: New Living Translation. Ed. Kevin Burns. Wheaton:
- a multivolume works?
Include the total number of volumes before the city and publisher, using the abbreviation "vols."
Conway, Jill Ker, ed. Written by Herself. 2 vols. New York: Random,
If your paper only cites one of the volumes, give the volume number before the city and publisher and give the total volumes after the date.
Conway, Jill Ker, ed. Written by Herself Vol. 2. New York: Random,
1996. 2 vols.
Note: The volume and page numbers are not necessary because the entries in the source are arranged alphabetically and therefore are easy to locate. If the reference work is not well known, provide full publication information as well.
- a work that is part of an anthology?
Begin with the name of the author of the selection, not the name of the editor of the anthology. Then give the title of the selection (quotes), the title of the anthology (underlined), the name of the editor, publication information, and the pages on which the selection appear.
Odell, Noël. "Mallory and Irvine's Attempt." Points Unknown: A
Century of Great Exploration. Ed. David Roberts. New York:
Norton, 2000. 161-72.
If an anthology gives the original publication information for a selection and if your instructor prefers that you use it, cite that information first. Follow with "Rpt. in" (Reprinted in) and the title of the anthology, along with the other information about the anthology as in the model above.
Alvarez, Julia. "Picky Eater." Something to Declare. Chapel Hill:
Algonquin, 1998. 75-86. Rpt. in The Norton Book of American
Autobiography. Ed. Jay Parini. New York: Norton, 1999. 619-26.
- a book that is part of a series?
Before the publication information, cite the series name as it appears on the title page, followed by the series number, if any.
Malena, Anne. The Dynamics of Identity in Francophone Caribbean
Narrative. Francophone Cultures and Lits. Ser. 24. New York:
- a foreword, introduction, preface, or afterward?
Begin with the author of the certain part, then the title of the part. Then give the title of the book, the author of the book, preceded by the word "By", and the editor of the book (if any). After the publication information, give the page numbers for the part of the book being cited.
Pipher, Mary. Foreword. Can't Buy My Love: How Advertising Changes
the Way We Think and Feel. By Jean Kilbourne. New York:
Touchstone-Simon, 1999. 11-13.
If the book part being cited has an actual title (other than 'forword', 'preface', etc.), include it immediately after the author's (of the section) name.
Ozick, Cynthia. "Portrait of the Essay as a Warm Body." Introduction.
The Best American Essays 1998. Ed. Ozick. Boston: Houghton,
- a book with a title within its title?
If the book contains a title normally underlined, do not underline the internal title nor place it in quote marks. See, in the following example, Ulysses is the name of another book that is included in the title of the source.
Vanderham, Paul. James Joyce and Censorship: The Trials of Ulysses.
New York: New York UP, 1997.
If the title within is normally enclosed with quotation marks, retain the quotation marks and underline the whole title. So, in the following, "The Pardoner's Tale," is usually in quote marks because it is a story, so the citation would be:
Faulkner, Dewey R., ed. Twentieth Century Interpretations of "The
Pardoner's Tale." Englewood Cliffs: Prentice, 1973.
- a poem?
Author's name. "Title of Poem". Title of Book Found In. Publication information.
- a book not in English?
Like a normal book in English, just write it out in the language it is in.
Dahlhaus, Carl. Musikasthetik. Koln: Gerig, 1967.
- a book that has a translator?
Allende, Isabel. Daughter of Fortune. Trans. Margaret Sayers Peden. New
York: Harper, 2000.
- a book with Jr. in the name?
MacKwnzie, Scott, Jr., and Allen R. McKay, III. Reading Workshop. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1980.
Frequently Asked Questions for Citing Dissertations, Theses, & Practicums
How do I cite, in MLA, a doctoral dissertation abstracted in Dissertation Abstracts International (DAI) and obtained from . . .
- UMI via the Digital Dissertation database
Author's name. Title of dissertation. Dissertation Abstracts International, volume number.issue number, page number series letter (A or B). (UMI Number) Retrieved date retrieved from Digital Dissertations database, Year.
Jitpraphai, Sam. Financial Variables and Merger Premiums: Evidence
from Bank Mergers. Dissertation Abstracts International,62.9,
3134A. (UMI No. AAT 3025476) Retrieved June 22, 2002, from
Digital Dissertations database, 2001.
- from UMI in print
Author's name. Title of publication. Dissertation Abstracts International, volume number.issue number, page number series letter (A or B). (UMI Number), Year.
Cannon, Chris. Does Moral Education Increase Moral Development? A
Reexamination of the Moral Reasoning Abilities of Working Adult
Learners. Dissertation Abstracts International, 61.12, 4851A.
(UMI No. AAT 9999321), 2001.
- in print from a university
Author's name. Title of dissertation. (Doctoral dissertation, name of institution, year of dissertation). Dissertation Abstracts International, volume number.issue number, page number series letter (A or B), Year.
Bi, Wang. Knowledge Discovery by Attribute-Oriented Approach Under
Directed Acyclic Concept Graph (DACG). (Doctoral dissertation,
Nova Southeastern University, 2001). Dissertation Abstracts
International, 62.11, 5195B, 2001.
How do I cite, in MLA, an unpublished:
- doctoral dissertation
Author's name. Title of dissertation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, institution, location, Year.
Bernardi, Ron A. Accounting Pronouncements, Firm Size, and Firm
Industry: Their Effect on Altman's Bankruptcy Prediction Model.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Nova University, Fort
Lauderdale, FL, 1990.
- doctoral practicum indexed in ERIC and retrieved online
Author's name. Title of dissertation. Unpublished doctoral practicum, institution, location. (ERIC Document No.) Retrieved, from database name, Year.
Sanford, Chris A. Working From Within the Classroom: Improving the
Delivery of Speech-Language Services to Kindergarten At-Risk
Students. Unpublished doctoral practicum, Nova Southeastern
University, Fort Lauderdale, FL. (ERIC Document Reproduction
Service No. ED420967) Retrieved December 21, 2001, from ERIC
E-Subscribe database, 1997.
- dissertation available on university program or department web site, no date
Author's name. Title of dissertation. Unpublished doctoral name of document type, institution, city, state unless city name is also in name of institution. Retrieved date, from institution, department or program web site: URL (Year).
Matlak, Karen L. Outcomes Evaluation of the Technology Property
Initiative at Collin County Community College. Unpublished
doctoral applied dissertation, Nova Southeastern University, Fort
Lauderdale, FL. Retrieved May 11, 2002, from Nova Southeastern
University, Program for Higher Education web site:
< http://www.nova.edu/phe/phe_resources/_online_documents.htm >
- doctoral MARP
Author's name. Title of document. Unpublished doctoral name of document, name of institution, place, Year.
Digby, Karen E. A Comparison of the Characteristics of Successful and
Non-Successful Associate Degree Nursing Students. Unpublished
doctoral major applied research project, Nova University, Fort
Lauderdale, FL, 1985.
Note: If this is indexed in ERIC, you also need the ERIC ID number. If you obtain it online, you will need to add the retrieval date.
- master's research project indexed in ERIC and retrieved online
Author's name. Title of project. Unpublished master's type of document, name of institution, place. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. Ed number) Retrieved date, from name of database followed by the word "database", Year.
Brown, Mark. Increasing Participation of Female Students in Physical
Science Class. Unpublished master's action research project, St.
Xavier University, Smithtown, IL. (ERIC Document Reproduction
Service No. ED455121) Retrieved December 24, 2001, from ERIC
E-Subscribe database, 2001.
Frequently Asked Questions for Citing ERIC ED Documents
- What are some general guidelines to remember when citing ERIC documents?
- ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) documents with ED accession numbers are usually, but not always, unpublished resources. If they are unpublished, you include the ED number in the citation.
- Give the ERIC number is parentheses at the end of the entry unless the document was obtained full text online. In that case, the retrieval statement is last.
- In cases of publications of limited circulation, the name and address of the publisher should be included in parentheses after the title and before the ERIC ED number.
- Only documents such as ERIC digests that are actually obtained full text from the ERIC database should include a retrieval statement with ERIC as the source.
- If journal articles or ERIC ED documents are indexed in ERIC, but are retrieved in another database, the retrieval statement needs to cite the database where the full text document was retrieved.
How do I cite in MLA a/an:
- ERIC digest retrieved in full text in ERIC
Author's name. Title of document. Place of publication: Publisher. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED number) Retrieved date from Name of database and ending with the word "database", Year.
McKay, Katy, and Barb Sorenson. How to Use ERIC to Search Your
Special Education Topic: Update 1999. ERIC Digest E573.
Reston, VA: ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted
Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED
434456) Retrieved December 12, 2001, from the ERIC database,
- unpublished conference paper indexed in ERIC
Note: Cite as you would a printed conference paper that was not published and that was indexed in ERIC.
Parks, Will, and Sam Odom. Reflections on Community-Based
Inclusive Preschools. Paper presented at the Head Start National
Research Conference, Washington, DC. (ERIC Document
Reproduction Service No. ED450938), 2000, June-July.
- unpublished conference paper indexed in ERIC and retrieved from a web site
Note: Cite as you would printed conference paper that was not published, followed by: Retrieved date name of database and ending with the word "database".
Clay, Don. WWW.2CHEAT.COM. Paper contributed to the
Teaching in the Community Colleges Online Conference (3rd),
Honolulu, HI. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.
ED450824) Retrieved December 23, 2001, from
< http://leahi.kcc.hawaii.edu.tcom98/rooks.html > (1998, April).
- ERIC document with limited circulation information
Author's name. If no author, title of the document first [Medium info if appropriate]. (Name and mailing address where can obtain publication. A web address may also be used in place of, or in addition to, address.) (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED number), Year.
Enhancing Education Through Technology: New Tools to Close the
Achievement Gap. Satellite town meeting #79: May 15, 2001.
[Videotape]. (Available from ED Pubs, P.O. Box 1398,
Jessup, MD, 20794-1398) (ERIC Document Reproduction Service
No. ED435672), 2001.
Education Development Center. Districts on the Move: Unified
Student Service in Boston Public School: Building a Continuum of
Service Through Standards-Based Reform. (National Institute from
Urban School Improvement, Education Development Center, Inc.,
55 Chapel Street, Newton, MA, 02458.) (ERIC Document
Reproduction Service No. ED455329), 2001.
- CD-ROM indexed in ERIC
Author's name. Title of CD-ROM. [Medium]. (Availability information) (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED number), Year.
Pacific Resources for Education and Learning. Art of the Pacific
Islands [CD-ROM]. (Available from Pacific Resources for
Education and Learning, 1099 Alakea Street, 25th floor, Honolulu,
HI 96813-4513) (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.
- government report indexed in ERIC
Author's name. Title of report (Report number). Place of publication: Publisher or agency of publication. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED number) Include retrieval statement if full text of document was retrieved online. Year.
Hoffman, Larry. Key Statistics on Public Elementary and Secondary
Schools and Agencies: School Year 1997-98. Survey report
(NCES-2001-304R). Washington, DC: National Center for
Educational Statistics. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.
ED452279) Retrieved December 23, 2001, from ERIC E-
Subscribe database, 2001.
- data file, available from ERIC Clearinghouse web site
Name of clearinghouse. Title of document. [Data file]. Available from place to obtain cited material web site: URL (Year).
ERIC Clearinghouse for Assessment and Evaluation. Data
Coordination/Standard Work Groups Status Reports.[Data File].
Available from National Center for Research Web site:
< http://cresst96.cse.ucla.edu/ > 2002.
Frequently Asked Questions for Citing Magazine, Journal, and Newspaper Articles
- What are some general guidelines for citing magazine, journal, and newspaper articles?
- Title of article is always in quote marks.
- Title of magazine, journal, and newspaper is always underlined.
- All month names are abbreviated except for May, June, and July. (April is abbreviated Apr.)
- Dates are written Day Month Year: 19 Jan. 1998. If a magazine journal, the date is in parentheses, if a newspaper the date is not in parentheses.
- If an article is cited with more than one page (consecutive) then give just the last two digits of the second number, when possible. So, 188-89, but 196-200.
- If the article is not on consecutive pages, if for example, it begins on page 27, then skips to page 30, and continues on page 32, write only the first page number, followed by a plus sign. 27+.
- For newspapers, take the name of the newspaper from the masthead, but omit any introductory article: Honolulu Advisor, but not The Honolulu Advisor.
- If the city publication of the newspaper is not part of the masthead, then add it to the title in brackets. News and Observer [Raleigh, NC].
- Specify editions of newspapers if one if given on the masthead.
- If the article in a newspaper is not on consecutive pages, write on the first page number and a plus sign. B1+.
- What is the difference between continuous pagination and issue pagination?
Continuous pagination" is where the entire volume of a journal never starts over with page 1 on a new issue. So, let's say in Volume 1, Issue 1, the journal starts on page 1 and ends on page 200. In the next issue, Issue 2, it would start on page 201 - 400. Then continue on like that for the rest of the issues in that volume. "Issue number pagination" is where every new issue always starts over with page number 1. So Issue 1 starts on page 1, Issue 2 starts on page 1, etc.
How do I cite in MLA:
- a standard magazine/journal article?
Author's name. "Title." Title of source. (Date): page numbers.
Kaplan, Robert D. "History Moving North." Atlantic Monthly.
(Feb. 1997): 21+.
Lord, Lewis. "There's Something about Mary Todd." U.S. News
and World Report. (19 Feb. 2001): 53.
- an article that is paginated by volume?
This means that an issue runs through a particular magazine volume like this: Issue 1 has pages 1-145, Issue 2 has pages 146-290, etc. The page numbers don't start over until you hit a new volume each year in January.
Author's name. "Title." Title of the source volume number (date): page numbers.
Ryan, Katy. "Revolutionary Suicide in Toni Morrison's Fiction." African
American Review 34 (2000): 389-412.
- an article that is paginated by issue?
If each new issue of a magazine/journal in a volume begins anew with page number 1, you are paginating by issue.
Author's name. "Title." Title of the source Volume number. Issue number (date): page number.
Wood, Michael. "Broken Deals: Fiction and the Century." Kenyon
Review 22.3 (2000): 50-64.
- an article in the daily newspaper/magazine?
Author's name. "Title." Title of source date: section letter & page number.
Murphy, Sean P. "Decisions on Status of Tribes Draw Fire." Boston Globe
27 Mar.2001: A2.
Example 2 (section is labeled with a number instead of letter):
Wilford, John Noble. "In a Golden Age of Discovery Faraway Worlds
Beckon." New York Times 9 Feb. 1997: sec. 1:1+.
Example 3 (when you have a special edition):
Wilford, John Noble. "In a Golden Age of Discovery Faraway Worlds
Beckon." New York Times 9 Feb. 1997, late ed., sec. 1:1+.
- a monthly periodical?
Author's name. "Title of article." Title of periodical. Month Year: page numbers.
Chandler-Crisp, Samantha. "Aerobic Writing: A Writing Practice Model."
May 1988: 9-11.
- a weekly periodical?
Author's name. "Title of article." Title of periodical. Month Year. page numbers.
Kauffmann, Steve. "Urbana Firm Obstacle to Office Project." The
Champaign-Urbana News-Gazette. 1987: A1 and A8.
- an editorial in a newspaper/magazine?
"All Wet." Editorial. Boston Globe 12 Feb. 2001: 14.
- a letter to the editor of a newspaper/magazine?
Shrewsbury, Toni. Letter. Atlanta Journal Constitution 17 Feb. 2001: A 13.
- a signed article in a newspaper/magazine?
Darst, Guy. "Environmentalists Want Hotels, Concessions Removed from
US Parks." Boston Globe 25 May 1988: 17.
- an unsigned article from a newspaper/magazine?
"Hospitals, Competing for Scarce Patients, Turn to Advertising." New
York Times 20 Apr. 1986, sec. 1, 47.
- an article with two or more authors?
Lamb, Douglas H., and Glenn D. Reeder. "Reliving the Golden Days."
Psychology Today June 1986: 22+.
- a review found in a newspaper/magazine?
Peterson, William. "Wanted: Democratic Babies." Rev. of "The Birth
Dearth: What Happens When People in Free Countries Don't
Have Enough Babies?" by Ben J. Wallenberg. American Scholar,
57. 1988: 312-14.
- How a republished or reprinted article?
Author's name. "Title of article." In author's name. Title of source.
(Reprinted from Title of source, volume number.issue number, Year: pages.)
Clark, Gill, and Elsie Zimmerman. "Professional Roles and Activities as
Models for Art Education." In Sam Dobbs (Ed.) Research Reading
for Discipline-Based Art Education. Reston, VA: NAEA. 1998.
(Reprinted from Studies in Art Education, 19.2, 1986: 34-39.)
Frequently Asked Questions for Citing Internet Material
- What are the general guidelines for citing internet sources?
- To the extent possible, information is provided just like it would be for a printed source.
- Date of retrieval is included (date that you found the source yourself).
- Periods are at the end of an Internet address, after the last bracket >
- Avoid dividing an electronic address at the end of a line. If absolutely necessary, divide it at a slash (/) or before a period.
- Writers citing web items should refer to a specific web document rather than to a home page or a menu.
- Strive to make sure that your web addresses are correct and that they work. Make sure you double check them.
- If an internet document is undated, insert a 'n.d.' in the date spot. Dates are written day, month abbrev, and then year.
- E-mail messages may be cited in the text of a paper, but they probably should not be listed in the works cited section because such messages are unrecoverable.
- Most website sources follow this format:
Author's name. Title. Date of website. Place of Pub/Sponsor of website. Date you accessed it.
Felluga, Dino. Undergraduate Guide to Literary Theory. 17 Dec
1999. Purdue University, 15 Nov 2000 < http:// >.
How do I cite in MLA:
- an electronic book?
Author's name. Title of Book. Date of website. Place of publication: Publisher. Retrieval date - web address <>.
Humm, Mark. Feminism and Film. 1997. Bloomington, IN: Edinburgh
University Press. 20 October 2001 University of Wisconsin-
Parkside Library, net Library Web site:
< http://www.netlibrary.com >.
- a document that is identical to a printed document?
(Cite as you would a printed source, followed by) Retrieved date of access (month, day, year) from (URL address)
Adams, Ron G. "Librarians as Enemies of Books". 1937. In Don
Seasman (Ed.), The Electronic Text Center. Charlottesville, VA:
University of Virginia, 1998. 7 Jan 2000
< http://extex.lib/virginia.edu/modeng/modengA.html >.
Freud, Sigmund. (1899/1911). The Interpretation of Dreams.
1899/1911(3rd ed.). (A.A. Brill, Trans.). 21 Jan 2001
< http://psychwww.com/books/interp/toc.htm >.
Cher (Cherilyn LaPiere Sarkisian). Cher. 2001. Biography.com. 2 Jan
2002 < http://search.biography.com/print_record.pl?id=23190 >.
- a document that is identical to a print source, but found online?
Killingbeck, Dan. "The Role of Television News in the Construction of
School Violence as 'Moral Panic'." [Electronic version]. Journal of
Criminal Justice and Popular Culture, 8 (2001):186-202.
- a web site document that is similar, but not identical to a print source?
Killingbeck, Dan. "The Role of Television News in the Construction of
School Violence as 'Moral Panic'." [Electronic version]. Journal of
Criminal Justice and Popular Culture, 8 (2001):186-202. 30 Oct
2001 < http://www.albany.edu/scj/jcjpc/vol8is3/killingbeck.html >.
- a daily newspaper article, an electronic version that is available by an online search?
Author's name. "Title of Article". Title of Newspaper. Date. Retrieval date
Greenhouse, Sam & Earl Lipton. "Possible Anthrax Case Shuts New York Times. 2001, Oct 30. 31 Oct 2001.
< http://www.nytimes.com >.
- an article from an internet-only magazine?
Saletan, Will. "The Powers of Negative Thinking." Slate. 2001, Oct. 17.
20 Oct 2001 < http://slate.msn.com/framegame/entries/01-10-
- a source from an internet-only journal?
Kawaksaki, Jim & Mike Raven. "Computer-Administered Surveys in
Extension." Journal of Extension 33 (1995): 252-255. 2 June 1999
< http://joe.org/joe/index.html >.
- an article from an internet-only newsletter?
Waufton, Kim. "Dealing with Anthrax." Telehealth News 3.2 (1999). 16
< http://www.telehealth.net/subscribe/newsletter_5b.html#1 >.
- computer software?
Individual with proprietary rights' name. Name of program (Version Number) [Computer software]. Place of publication: Publisher. (any other identifying material) Year.
Arend, Dominic N. Choices (Version 4.0) [Computer software].
Champaign, IL: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Research
Laboratory. (CERL Report. CH7-22510). 1993.
Note: If an individual(s) has proprietary rights to the software, their name(s) are listed at the head of the entry, last names first, followed by a period. Otherwise, treat such references as unauthored. Do not italicize the title. Specify in brackets that the source is computer software, program, or language. List the location and the organization's name that produced the program. Add any necessary information for identifying the program (in this example, the report number) in parentheses at the entry's conclusion. Do not add a period at the end of the citation if it ends with a web site address.
- a computer manual?
Same as the entry in Question 89, except in brackets put "manual" instead of computer software.
- just a plain old document I get from the internet?
Author's name. Title of document. Date. Retrieval date.
American Psychological Association. American Psychological
Association Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of
Conduct. 1992. 30 Oct 2001
< http://www.apa.prg/ethics/code.html >.
- an internet technical or research report?
Institution's name. Title of report. Date. Name of web site. Retrieval date address of web site
University of California, San Francisco, Institute of Health and Aging.
Chronic Care in America: A 21st Century Challenge. 1996. Robert
Wood Foundation Web site. 9 Sept 2000
< http://www.rwjf.org/library/chrcare >.
- a document that was created by a private organization?
Name of Organization. Title of document. Year. Retrieval date web address.
Greater Hattiesburg Civic Awareness Group, Task Force on Sheltered
Programs. (n.d.). Fund-Raising Efforts. N.D. 10 Nov 2001
< http://www.hattiesburgcag.org >.
- a document from a university program or department?
McNeese, Mike N. (2001). Using Technology in Educational Settings.
2001. University of Southern Mississippi, Educational Leadership
and Research Web site. 13 Oct 2001 < http://www-
- an e-mail, newsgroup, online forum, discussion group, or electronic mail list?
Usually, personal communications, which are not archived, should not be included in reference lists and cited just within the text: Smith, Fred ("personal communication," January 21, 1999).
If the communication is archived, it would be cited as:
Author's name. Title of message. Date. Message posted to name of mailing list, archived at web address
Hammond, Tom. YAHC: Handle Parameters, DOI Genres, Etc. 20 Nov
2001. Message posted to Ref-Links electronic mailing list,
archived at < http://www.doi.org/mail-archive/ref-
If you must, for some reason, cite the personal communications, here are same examples to go by:
A personal e-mail, if you still have access to it:
Author's name. Subject of message [E-mail to receiver's name], [Online]. Date. Available: email.
Corio, Ron. APA Guide Deadline [e-mail to Margaret E. Sokolik],
[Online]. 21 June 1994. Available: e-mail.
Message posted to online forum or discussion group:
Author or screen name. Subject line of message [Any identifier]. Date. Message posted to (address)
Jones, Don. Genealogy Help [Msg 232]. 3 March 2002. Message posted
to < http://groups.yahoo.com/group/geneology/message/232 >.
Message posted to an electronic mailing list:
Author or screen name. Subject line of message [Any identifier]. Date. Message posted to (address)
Clarke, Fran. Hypnosis [Msg 334] 13 April 2002. Message posted to
STUMPERS electronic mailing list, archived at
< http://www.umich.orgmail-archive/stumper-l/msg000334.htm >.
Message posted to a newsgroup:
Author or screen name. Subject line of message
[Any identifier]. Date. Message posted to (address)
Aquawoman. Problems Accessing Information [Msg 21]. 3 April
2002. Message posted to .
- A personal e-mail, if you still have access to it:
- a web document that does not have a print document counterpart?
Author's name (if any). Title of document (if there is no title, provide a [Description of content, in brackets]. Date of electronic publication or update. Retrieved date of access .
Tanner Computer Services. The World Famous Hot Dog Page. 1999. 7 Jan
2002 < http://www.xroads.com/~tcs/hotdog.html >.
Kuo, Hing, [Home page]. 2001. 14 Jan 2002
< http://www.tc.umn.edu/nlhome/g012/kuox0019/ >.
- aggregated databases?
They are cited exactly like a normal printed source followed by the retrieval date and then the name of the database (instead of a web address).
Dzau, Van J., & Mike Creager. "Chapter 247: Diseases of the Aorta."
Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 1999. 7 Jan 2000.
Harrison's Online database.
- an abstract on CD-ROM?
Author's name. "Title of article" [CD-ROM]. Title of Journal, Volume, date: page numbers. Abstract from: Source and retrieval number.
- an internet government report?
Sponsoring agency. Title. (Publication data). Date. Retrieved [date] from [name of organization and URL]
U.S. General Accounting Office. Telemedicine: Federal
Strategy is Needed to Guide Investments. (Publication No.
GAO/NSAID/HEHS-97-67). 1997. 2000 Sept 15, from General
Accounting Office Reports Online via GPA Access:
< http://www.access.gpo.gov/su_docs/aces/aces160.shtml?/goa/index >.
- an internet Adobe Acrobat Document (PDF)?
Author or sponsoring organization. (Date). Document title or name of Web page. Date. Retrieved [date] from [pdf page] at [URL]
Harris Interactive Inc. Web@work Survey 2002: Cyber-Addiction in
the Workplace. 2002. 3 March 2003, from page 3 at
< http://www.websense.com/company/news/research/webatwork2002.pdf >.
Frequently Asked Questions For Citing Government Sources
How do I cite in MLA:
- a published conference paper in conference proceedings
Author's name. "Title of paper." In Editor (first initial, last name) (Ed.) Title of conference proceedings (page numbers). Place of publication: Publisher. Year.
Gibson, Carl C. "Impact of the larger social context on the distance
learner." International Council for Distance Education: One World Many
Voices: Quality in Open and Distance Learning (pp. 279-282). Chicago:
Milton Keynes. 1995.
- a conference paper published in a journal
Format like a journal article retrieved at online web site
Campbell, Carl. "Quality assessment in distance education."
Annual Conference on Distance Teaching and Learning, 507-510.
(1998).22 March 2002
< http://www.CDTL.org/index/disted/12333.htm >.
- an unpublished conference paper
Author. Title of paper. Paper presented at name of conference, city, state. Year, month.
Matins, Jim R. Working with the Terminally Ill: An Integrated
Theoretical Model. Paper presented at the American Counseling
Association World Conference, San Diego, CA. 1999, April.
- an unpublished conference paper indexed in ERIC and retrieved in a full text online database
Parks, Will, & Sam Ogden. Reflections on Community-Based
Inclusive Preschools. Paper presented at the Head Start National
Research Conference, Washington, DC. (ERIC Document
Reproduction Service No. ED450938) Retrieved date, from name
of database. 2000, June-July.
- a conference paper presented at a virtual conference
Author. Title of conference paper. Paper presented at the Name of the conference. Retrieved date of access, from URL [There is no geographic location, page numbers, or month] Year.
Steinbrecker, Don. The Care and Feeding of an Online Instructional Site.
Paper presented at the Distance Education Virtual Conference. 2002. 22
March 2002. < http://www.umuc.au/conference/disted/care.html >.
- What are the basic citing guidelines for government documents?
Government publications are written by federal bureaucrats and printed, not published, by the Government Printing Office. Very often these publications will not follow a standard title page arrangement and some publishing elements will be eliminated. However, use the following citation example to find as many elements as possible and arrange them as shown:
Author (Agency). Title, edition, statement. Place of publication: Publisher.
(Series elements). (Notes). [If including Superintendent of
Documents number, enter in notes] Date.
Issuing Agency as Author
- Citing a single issuing agency
U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. Home Safety Tips: You Can
Keep Your Baby Safe. Washington: Government Printing Office,
- Citing different bureaucratic levels
Note: Each agency usually has many bureaucratic levels. Use the "parent" agency and the lowest level given as author.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. National Center for
Health Statistics. Disability Among Older Persons: United States
and Canada. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1995. (HE
- Citing a well known agency
Note: Some lower levels of agencies can be well-known on their own. You may choose to eliminate the "parent" as part of the author.
U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation. The FBI Mission: To Uphold the Law.
Washington: Government Printing Office, 1990.
Note: Use the full Committee name as the author even though a sub-committee might have actually held the hearing or issued the report.
Congress as Author
- Citing hearings
U.S. House. Committee on Economic and Educational Opportunities.
Child Care and Child Welfare Hearing, 3 February 1995.
Washington: Government Printing Office, 1995.
- Citing committee prints
U.S. Senate. Committee on Governmental Affairs. Managing the Public's
Business: Federal Government Corporations. (S. Prt. 104-18).
Washington: Government Printing Office, 1995.
- Citing reports
U.S. Senate. Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. Franklin D.
Roosevelt's Family Lands: Report Together with Minority Views
(to accompany S. 134). (S. Rpt.104-32). Washington: Government
Printing Office, 1995.
Citing Legal Publications
- Citing Statutes at Large
"Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1994." (P.L. 103-78),
United States Statutes at Large. 107 Stat. 2024. 1994.
- Citing U.S. Reports
Burns v. Reed, 500 U.S. Reports 500 pp. 478-506.
- Citing Federal Register
"Suspension of Community Eligibility, Final Rule." Federal Register
60:219 31 October 1995. p. 55329.
- Citing the Code of Federal Regulations
"Application for Temporary Certificates in Cases of Emergency." Code of
Federal Regulations Title 18, Pt. 157.17, 1995 ed.
- Citing the Census of Population and Housing
U.S. Census of Population and Housing, 1990: Summary Population and
Housing Characteristics: Tennessee. Washington: Government
Printing Office, 1991.
- Citing the Statistical Abstract of the United States
Statistical Abstract of the United States 1997. 117th ed. Washington:
Government Printing Office, 1997.
Citing State Data Center Publications
- Citing State Data Center Publications
Tennessee State Data Center. Tennessee Selected Social Characteristics:
1990 (1990 Census of Population and Housing: Summary Tape
File 3A). Nashville, 1992.
Citing Microform Collections
- Citing the American Statistics Index (ASI)
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 1992 AFDC Recipient
Characteristics Study. Washington: The Department, 1994. (1994
ASI microfiche 4584-7).
- Citing the Statistical Reference Index (SRI)
Department of Labor. Snapshot Delaware 93. Newark: Delaware
Department of Labor, 1994. (1994 SRI Microfiche S1405-4).
- Citing the Major Studies & Issue Briefs of the Congressional Research Service Index (CRSI)
U.S. Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service. Shared
Housing: A Possible Alternative for Housing the Elderly? by
Susan Vanhorenbeck. Washington: The Service, 1983. (1983/84
CRSI Reel 10, Frame 681).
Basic Citation form for Tangible Sources
- Citing form for Tangible Sources
Note: A citation to data or full-text documents from such files on CD- ROM or floppies should include, as applicable, the issuing agency, title, statements of responsibility for production, medium designation, edition statement, place of publication, producer, and date.
Author. Title, edition statement [TYPE OF MEDIUM]. Place of publication: Producer, Date.
U.S. Geological Service. MudView++. [DISKETTE]. Washington:
Government Printing Office, 1994.
U.S. Bureau of the Census. Census of Population and Housing, 1990:
Summary Tape File 3A: Tennessee. CD-ROM. Washington: The
U.S. International Trade Administration. Market Research Reports:
France-Euro Disney. 1992. In U.S. Department of Commerce.
Office of Business Analysis. The National Trade Data Bank: The
Export Connection CD-ROM. Washington: Government Printing
Office, February, 1992.
Basic Citing Form for Online Government Sources
- Citing form for Online Government Sources
Author. Title (edition), TYPE OF MEDIUM. Date of publication. Supplier. Available: Uniform Resource Locator. [Access date].
U.S. Bureau of the Census. Poverty Areas. ONLINE. 1995. Census
Bureau. Dec. 1995].
Citing for Individual Titles within Searchable Databases
- Citing the Federal Register
"Protection of Historic Properties." 64 Federal Register (18 May. 1999).
< http://www.access.gpo.gov/su_docs/aces/aces140.html > [26 Feb.
- Citing Congressional Records
Ford, Rep. [TN]. "Tribute to Rhodes College Mock Trial Team."
Congressional Record ONLINE 25 May 1995. Thomas. Available:
< http://thomas.loc.gov/home/r104query.html > [3 March 1999].
- Citing Congressional Bills
U.S. House. 104th Congress, 1st Session. H.R. 1950, Newborns' and
Mothers' Health Protection Act of 1995. ONLINE. GPO Access.
Available: < http://www.access.gpo.gov/congress/cong009.html >
[8 June 1995].
- Citing GAO Reports
U.S. General Accounting Office. Homeland Security: Progress Made;
More Direction and Partnership Sought. ONLINE. GPO Access.
12 March 2002. Available:
< http://www.access.gpo.gov/su_docs/aces/aces160.shtml >
[3 May 2002].
- Citing U.S. Code
Abandoned Shipwrecks. Title 43 U.S. Code, Ch. 39 ONLINE. GPO
Access. 2002. Available:
< http://www.access.gpo.gov/congress/cong013.html > [2
- Citing Patents
Apple tree "Vermont Gold", by W.H. Luginbuhl. 1991, August 13.
Patent PP7618 [Online]. Available: NEXIS Library: PATENT
Lawn mower, by Jung-Chang Jong 2002, May 13. D457897 [Online].
Available: < http://patft.uspto.gov/netahtml/search-bool.html >.
Citing Government Reports
- Citing a report available from the Government Printing Office (GPO) with a government institute as group author
Author. Title of report (Report number). Location: Publisher or agency. Year.
Shafer, Lon. Data Sources on Lifelong Learning Available From The
National Center for Education Statistics (GPO No: ED
1.310/2/:431892). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of
- Citing a report available from the ERIC
Author. Title of publication (Report number). Place of publication: Publisher. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED number). Year.
Schafer, Lon L. Data Sources on Lifelong Learning Available From
The National Center for Education Statistics. Work paper series
(NCES-WP-1999-11). Washington, DC: National Center for
Education Statistics. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.
- Citing a government report not available from the GPO or ERIC
Author (or treat the government department, office, agency, or institute that produced the report as corporate author. If the organization that produced the report is not well known, precede with the higher organization). Title of publication (Report number). Place of publication: Publisher. Year.
Health, Services, and Human Services Division, General Accounting
Office. Suicide Prevention: Efforts to Increase Research
and Education in Palliative Care. Report to congressional
requesters (GAO/HEHS-98-128). Washington, DC: General
Accounting Office. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.
- Citing an electronic version of U.S. government report available from GPO Access database on the Web (aggregated database)
See format in previous citation. Retrieved date of access, from name of agency via name of database: URL
Lewis, Lon, & Evelyn Farris. Remedial education at higher education
institutions in fall 1995 (GPO No: ED 1.328/5:R 28). Washington,
DC: U.S. Department of Education. 1996. 20 June 2002
General Accounting Office Reports online via GPO Access:
- Citing a U.S. government report available on government agency web site
Name of agency. Title of document (Report number). Year. Retrieved date of access, from URL.
National Center for Higher Education. Statistical Analysis Report:
Higher Education (NCES 97-584). 2002. 20 June 2002.
< http://nces.ed.gov/pubs/97584.html >.
Frequently Asked Questions For Citing Unusual Sources
How do I cite in MLA:
- a course lecture?
Name of lecturer. Title of lecture. Location given. Date.
Applebee, Fran. Reducing the Federal Deficit. Lecture
delivered at Dartmouth College at the Rockefeller Symposium,
Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH. 1993.
- graphical materials?
Usually you place the full citation directly beneath the reproduced graphical material (picture) starting with the left hand margin. Begin your citation with "Source", followed by a colon, then complete the citation. If you reproduce the essential character of the graphic, yet change its style and content, you must also cite the original, beginning your citation with words like "From", "Modified from", "Adapted from", of "After".
Source: Lynch, P.J., & Sam Horton. Web Style Guide: Basic Design
Principles for Creating Web Sites. New Haven: Yale University Press.
(Reproduced by permission of Yale University Press). 1999.
- a documentary?
Marx, Gavin. (Producer) and Graham Anderson (Director). The Rules of
Depression [Film]. (Available from Dartmouth Medical School
Films, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755). 1998.
- a source that's on microfilm or microfiche?
Rhodes, Matt. "Bio-Terrorism Expert Warns of Crises to Come." Valley
News, 19 Sept. 2001: A1-2. 2001.
Newsbank: Social Problems 12 (2001): fiche 5, grids 8-11.
- court cases?
Colorado State University vs. Hallahan, 235 U.S. 254 (1995).
- How do I cite a map in a book?
Map Author if known. Title of Map [map]. Scale if given. In: Book Author. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year, page number.
Example:Baum, F. L. The Yellow Brick Road [map]. Scale not given. In: F. L. Baum.
The Wizard of Oz. Kansas City: Munchkin Inc., 1938, 32.
Like unpublished interviews, letters do not need to be listed in the reference page. Instead, cite the information in the text of your document, according to the following format:
(First name, last name of author, letter, date)
(Carl Jones, letter, June 6, 1984)
- films and videotapes?
Weir, Paul B. (Producer), & Ben Harrison (Director). Levels of
Consciousness [Videotape]. Boston, MA: Filmways. 1992.
- television or radio programs?
Producer name & director name. Title of program [Television program or Radio program]. Place of broadcast: Channel Call Letters. Air date.
Keillor, Greg. (Producer), & Lon Smith (Director). A Prairie
Home Companion [Radio program]. St. Louis, MO: KMOX. 2 Oct
McFerrin, Ben. (Vocalist). Medicine Music [Cassette recording].
Hollywood, CA: EMI-USA. 1990.
- artistic works?
Van Gogh, Vincent. (Artist). Entrance to the Public Gardens in Arles
[Painting]. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1888.
- performances (concerts, theatrical, etc)?
Taylor, James. (Vocalist). James Taylor Live: 1993 Concert
Tour [Concert]. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Assembly
Hall. 1 Oct 1993.
- a pamphlet or brochure?
National Cancer Institute. Cancer Research - Because Lives
Depend On It [Brochure]. Bethesda, MD: Author. 2002, June.
- an annual report?
Home Depot. Home Depot 2000 Annual Report. Atlanta, GA:
- a monograph with issue number and serial (whole) number?
Author's name. "Title of monograph." Title of monograph series, Volume number (Issue number, Serial number [or whole number]). Year.
Scott, John P. "The Process of Primary Socialization in Canine and
Human Infants." Monographs of the Society for Research in Child
Development, 28 (1, Serial No. 189). 1976.
- a poster session?
Presenter's name. Title of poster session. Poster session presented at name
of organization and place of presentation. Year, Month of
- court decisions?
Name v. Name, Volume Source Page (Court Location and date).
Meyer v. State of Nebraska, 262 U.S. 390 (S.Ct. 625 1923).
- cite statutes? enacted bills and resolutions?
Name of Act, Volume Source Section Number (Year).
Farm Credit Act. 42 U.S.C.A. sec. para. 410 (1959).
- an executive order?
Executive Order Number, Volume number of Code of Federal Regulations C.F.R. Pages (Year).
Exec. Order No. 12149, 3 C.F.R. 420-22 (1979).
- a book review? a movie/film review?
Reviewer's name. Year of review. "Title of review" [Review of the book
title of book being reviewed]. Title of the
periodical in which the review is published, Volume, Page numbers.
Rose, Tom. 1998, February 24. "Blues Sisters" [Review of the book Blues
Legacies and Black Feminism: Gertrude "Ma" Rainey, Bessie Smith, and
Billie Holiday]. Village Voice, 8, 139-141.
Reviewer's name. "Title of review" [Review of the film title of the film].
Title of magazine in which review is found, Volume number, pages. Year.
Maslin, Jim. "Shakespeare Saw a Therapist?" [Review of the
movie Shakespeare in Love]. The New York Times, p. E16. 16 Dec 2001.
- Reviewer's name. Year of review. "Title of review" [Review of the book title of book being reviewed]. Title of the periodical in which the review is published, Volume, Page numbers.
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