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APA Style FAQs

(Click a question below to see the answer)

  • What is the APA style? My paper is due, and it must be written in APA style, especially the references.
  • Does APA offer a workbook on APA style?
  • In referencing periodicals, what's the difference between using "p." and "pp." for the page numbers?
  • How do I format a bibliography in APA style?
  • What is a hanging indent?
  • What are some of the general rules for a reference list using APA style?

Frequently Asked Questions for In-Text Citations

  • How do I cite my sources using the in-text citation method?

How do I in-text cite...

Frequently Asked Questions for Citing Books

  • What are some general guidelines for the citing of books?

How Do I Cite...

  • How do I cite a book written by a single author?
  • How do I cite a book with two or more authors?
  • How do I cite a book with a corporate author?
  • How do I cite a book that doesn't have an author?
  • How do I cite a book with editors?
  • How do I cite an introduction, preface, foreword, article, chapter, afterward, or conclusion?
  • Is the citing any different on books that are not first editions?
  • I selected my source from an anthology, so how would I end up citing it?
  • How do I cite a source that comes from an encyclopedia or dictionary entry?
  • I found one of my sources in a multivolume work. How do I cite it?
  • What if, on my source, the author is the same as a publisher? Ex: A society, association, or institution are both author and publisher.
  • I am using a chapter in a volume of a book series, how would I cite it?
  • The source that I am using is actual a translation, how would I cite it?

Frequently Asked Questions for Citing Periodicals (Newspapers, Magazines, and Journals)

  • What are some general guidelines for citing periodicals?
  • What is the difference between "continuous pagination" and "issue number pagination"?

How Do I Cite...

  • How do I cite an article in a journal or a magazine with a volume number and continuous pagination?
  • How do I cite an article in a journal or a magazine that is paginated by issue?
  • How do I cite monthly periodicals?
  • How do I cite weekly periodicals?
  • How do I cite an article in a newspaper?
  • How would I cite an editorial/letter to the editor in a newspaper or magazine?
  • How do I cite an unsigned article in a newspaper or magazine?
  • How do I cite republished or reprinted article?

Frequently Asked Questions for Citing Internet Materials

  • What are the general guidelines for citing internet sources?

How Do I Cite...

  • How do I cite an electronic book?
  • How do I cite a web site document that is identical to a printed document?
  • How do I cite an article that is based on a print document and is identical, but is the electronic version of the printed source? How do I cite a web site document that is similar, but not identical to a printed document?
  • How do I cite a daily newspaper article, an electronic version that is available by a search?
  • How do I cite an article from an internet-only magazine?
  • How do I cite a source from an internet-only journal?
  • How do I cite an article from an internet-only newsletter?
  • How do I cite computer software?
  • How do I cite a computer manual?
  • How do I cite just a plain old document I get from the internet?
  • How do I cite an internet technical or research report?
  • How do I cite a document that was created by a private organization?
  • How do I cite a document from a university program or department?
  • How do I cite an e-mail, newsgroup, online forum, discussion group, or electronic mail list?
  • How do I cite a web document that does not have a print document counterpart?
  • How do you cite aggregated databases?
  • How do I cite an abstract on CD-ROM?
  • How do I cite an internet government report?
  • How do I cite an internet Adobe Acrobat Document (PDF)?

Frequently Asked Questions for Citing Dissertations, Theses, & Practicums

How Do I Cite...

  • Citing an unpublished doctoral dissertation:
  • Citing an unpublished doctoral practicum indexed in ERIC and retrieved online:
  • Citing an unpublished doctoral applied dissertation available on university program or department web site, no date:
  • Citing an unpublished doctoral MARP:
  • Citing an unpublished master's research project indexed in ERIC and retrieved online:

Frequently Asked Questions for Citing ERIC ED Documents

  • What are some general guidelines to remember when citing ERIC documents?
  • Citing ERIC digest retrieved in full text in ERIC:
  • Citing an unpublished conference paper indexed in ERIC:
  • Citing an unpublished conference paper indexed in ERIC and retrieved from a web site:
  • Citing an ERIC document with limited circulation information:
  • Citing a CD-ROM indexed in ERIC:
  • Citing a government report indexed in ERIC:
  • Citing a data file, available from ERIC Clearinghouse web site:

Frequently Asked Questions about Citing Proceedings

  • Citing a published conference paper in conference proceedings:
  • Citing a conference paper published in a journal:
  • Citing an unpublished conference paper:
  • Citing an unpublished conference paper indexed in ERIC and retrieved in a full text online database:
  • Citing a conference paper presented at a virtual conference:

Frequently Asked Questions about Citing Government Reports

  • What are the basic citing guidelines for government documents?

Issuing Agency as Author (Questions 87-89)

  • Citing a single issuing agency:
  • Citing different bureaucratic levels:
  • Citing a well known agency:

Congress as Author

  • Citing hearings:
  • Citing committee prints:
  • Citing reports:

Citing Legal Publications

Citing State Data Center Publications

  • Citing State Data Center Publications:

Citing Microform Collections

Basic Citation form for Tangible Sources

Note: A citation to data or full-text documents from such files on CD-ROM or floppies should include, as applicable, the issuing agency, title, statements of responsibility for production, medium designation, edition statement, place of publication, producer, and date.

  • Citing form for Tangible Sources:

Basic Citing form for Online Government Sources

  • Citing form for Online Government Sources:

Citing for Individual Titles within Searchable Databases

  • Citing the Federal Register:
  • Citing Congressional Records:
  • Citing Congressional Bills:
  • Citing GAO Reports:
  • Citing U.S. Code:
  • Citing Patents:

Citing Government Reports

  • Citing a report available from the Government Printing Office (GPO) with a government institute as group author:
  • Citing a report available from the ERIC:
  • Citing a government report not available from the GPO or ERIC:
  • Citing an electronic version of U.S. government report available from GPO Access database on the Web (aggregated database):
  • Citing a U.S. government report available on government agency web site:

Frequently Asked Questions about Citing Unusual Sources

  • How do I cite a course lecture?
  • How do I cite graphical materials?
  • How do I cite a documentary?
  • How do I cite a source that's on microfilm or microfiche?
  • How do I cite court cases?
  • How do I cite a map in a book?
  • How do I site a map in a periodical article?
  • How do I cite a map or plate in an atlas?
  • How do I cite an atlas?
  • How do I cite a topographic series, print format?
  • How do I cite a static digital map?
  • How do I cite an interactive reference map?
  • How do I cite an interactive thematic map?
  • How do I cite a real time image?
  • How do I cite a real time map?
  • How do I cite anything to do with comic books?
  • How do I cite letters?
  • How do I cite films and videotapes?
  • How do I cite television or radio programs?
  • How do I cite recordings?
  • How do I cite artistic works?
  • How do I cite performances (concerts, theatrical, etc)?
  • How do I cite an eBook?
  • How do I cite a pamphlet or brochure?
  • How do I cite an annual report?
  • How do I cite a monograph with issue number and serial (whole) number?
  • How do I cite a monograph that is a supplement to a journal?
  • How do I cite a monograph that is bound into a journal?
  • How do I cite a poster session?
  • How do I cite court decisions?
  • How do I cite statutes?
  • How do I cite enacted bills and resolutions?
  • How do I cite an executive order?
  • How do I cite a book review?
  • How do I cite a movie/film review?

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